It is deemed to be the source of efficiency and productivity or the logical starting point of economic analysis. In approving clinical health psychology as the sixth officially recognized specialty in professional psychology, the Council accepted the following definition of this specialty: The specialty of Clinical Health Psychology applies scientific knowledge of the interrelationships among behavioral, emotional, cognitive, social and biological components in health and disease to the promotion and maintenance of health; the prevention, treatment and rehabilitation of illness and disability; and the improvement of the health care system. The most obvious dimension is a broad division of labor between women and men, which all known societies exhibit in some manner or other.

China has opened up to international trade and investment with inclusive growth strategies, and at the same time it has put an increasing emphasis on indigenous knowledge creation and innovation. But, unlike the petitions for clinical neuropsychology and health psychology, both of which had come from APA divisions, the petition for this new proficiency was submitted from an interdisciplinary organization, The Biofeedback Certification Institute of America. The economic efficiency achieved through division of labor is what GPNs are created for.

Since 1981, the Institute has certified individual practitioners from various disciplines as proficient in biofeedback. The relationship between a body of knowledge and a set of skills related to the parameters of practice … represents the most critical aspect of the definition of a proficiency.

This form is known as detailed or technical division of labor. Compare the Difference Between Similar Terms. China has increased its outlays on research and development (R&D) with the deliberate aim of narrowing the gap in productivity and income in relation to leading countries. The concept behind the assembly line is dependent on the specialization of labour. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, URL:, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, 2001, International Encyclopedia of the Social & Behavioral Sciences, Intensification and Specialization, Archaeology of, Global Value Chains and Production Networks, Theoretical Basis of Microcosmic GPN Studies, Assessing EU Smart Specialization Policy in a Comparative Perspective, Advances in the Theory and Practice of Smart Specialization, Primi, 2014; Radosevic and Stancova, 2015, Smart Specialization as an Innovation-Driven Strategy for Economic Diversification: Examples From Scandinavian Regions, Asheim and Gertler, 2005; Asheim et al., 2011b, 2016, General Strategies and Specific Strategies for Libraries, Inherent Strategies in Library Management, American Psychological Association, 1995a, American Psychological Association, 1995b, Vertical specialization and strengthening indigenous innovation, Achieving Inclusive Growth in China Through Vertical Specialization.

Another reason is that, time is saved by eliminating the constant need to move from one operation to the next by the worker. I would to thank the writer of this topic of division of labour for good explanation which gave me courage , i had thanks him or her for the knowledge he /she spread to whole world .

Did you know? In his study of pin factories, Smith observed that one worker alone might make twenty pins in a day, but that a small business of ten workers (some of whom would need to do two or three of the eighteen tasks involved in pin making), could make forty-eight thousand pins in a day. Relationship Between Division of Labour and Specialization However, 10 workers working together specialising in the production of pins will produce 48000 pins a day. “Smart” in the smart specialization approach refers to the way these domains of competitive advantage should be identified, which is through what is called “entrepreneurial discovery.” However, the emphasis here is not on the role of traditional entrepreneurs, resulting in a policy focus only on firm formation as an individual entrepreneurial project. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. (1999) describes “the entrepreneur” as one type of leadership along the “innovation journey” comes close to what is meant by entrepreneurial discovery in the smart specialization approach. The formal study of economics began when Adam Smith (1723–1790) published his famous book The Wealth of Nations in 1776. In the case of domestic trade, pure consumers would starve without trading because they do not produce things; in the case of international trade, however, every country is both a consumer and a producer so there are comparative advantages, economies of scale, and preference differences. In the process of producing cars, there will be a high degree of labour specialisation. Individuals, organizations, and nations are endowed with or acquire specialized capabilities and either form combinations or trade to take advantage of the capabilities of others in addition to their own. Clinical neuropsychology thus became the fifth specialty in professional psychology officially recognized by the APA (DeLeon, 1997, p. 856). 5. In a broad sense, division of labor is a pre-condition for conceptualizing society, as used in a social or sociological context. Moreover, the concept of division of labour or specialization is mainly useful in mass production and assembly lines. Even a relatively simple business like a restaurant divides up the task of serving meals into a range of jobs like top chef, sous chefs, less-skilled kitchen help, servers to wait on the tables, a greeter at the door, janitors to clean up, and a business manager to handle paychecks and bills—not to mention the economic connections a restaurant has with suppliers of food, furniture, kitchen equipment, and the building where it is located.
Specialization can be thought of either as the division of human labor for increased efficiency, or in terms of the organization of knowledge. Workers on an assembly line are an example of the divisions of labor. The particular advantages may be based on educational choices, which are in turn shaped by interests and talents. You don’t have to know anything about textiles or the construction of sewing machines if you need a jacket—you just buy the jacket and wear it.

However, traditional international division of labor theories have failed to systematically address the issue of intraproduct trade, which stands in stark contrast to the importance of intraproduct international trade to the economy.

Basically, both these concepts involve dividing the main process into different tasks, assigning each task to individual workers or group of workers. This is a model of endogenous trade.

A worker could make at most a few dozen imperfect pins per day.

A higher output with lower prices will mean more wants will be satisfied with the given amount of scarce resources. How can a group of workers, each specializing in certain tasks, produce so much more than the same number of workers who try to produce the entire good or service by themselves? Correspondingly, there are also interindustry specialization and intraindustry specialization.3. It is expected that the petition review process will lead to other recommendations for recognition of new specialties and proficiencies. Here also, the main process is divided into multiple tasks, and each employee completes assigned tasks. Feenstra and Hanson (1996), Arndt (1997), and Deardorff (2001) analyzed international vertical specialization using the H–O model of factor endowment theory. This new school of thought, known as “new classical economics,” is advocated by economists like Yang Xiaokai. A smart specialization strategy implies maximizing the knowledge-based development potential of any country or region, with a strong or weak R&I system or with a high-tech or low-tech industrial structure.
The rationale was that this should transform the EU into the most competitive region in the world, but the outcome was very different. Masanori Koizumi, in Inherent Strategies in Library Management, 2017. To illustrate the division of labor, Smith counted how many tasks were involved in making a pin: drawing out a piece of wire, cutting it to the right length, straightening it, putting a head on one end and a point on the other, packaging pins for sale, and so on. Whatever the reason, if people specialize in the production of what they do best, they will be more productive than if they produce a combination of things, some of which they are good at and some of which they are not. The division of labor is the soul of classical economics. Even a relatively simple business like a restaurant divides up the task of serving meals into a range of jobs: top chef, sous chefs, less-skilled kitchen help, host/hostess, waiters/waitresses, janitors, a business manager to handle accounts and paychecks, etc. Both concepts are used in industrial relations and human resources. It creates the possibility of increased unemployment among the labour force of the country. Division of labor is always human-made, its forms are socially shaped.

In addition, some dimensions are relevant at more than one level. The theories explaining intraindustry specialization and intraindustry trade are intraindustry trade theories. Section, “The Cases: Scandinavian Regions” illustrates how smart specialization strategies have been designed and implemented in three Scandinavian regions, using the theoretical framework to inform the analysis.

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