We define a collapsar as a collapsing massive star that produces in it centre a relativistic jet.4 The jet penetrates the stellar envelope and produces the GRB once it has left the star. It’s not perhaps too difficult to see how the expression comes to have this meaning, suggesting as it does that, however you look at something, whether briefly or in detail, the conclusion is the same. During the last decade a consensus has formed that long GRBs (LGRBs) arise from the collapse of massive stars, and that short GRBs (SGRBs) have a different origin, most likely neutron star mergers. Soft BATSE bursts show a considerably longer plateau (0.4–25 s), indicating that most of the soft short bursts are in fact collapsars (adapted from Bromberg et al. However, as yet there is no conclusive demonstration of this origin [18]. These red bumps were interpreted as the signatures of 1998bw-like SN, supporting the GRB–SN association.

These results lend strong support to the idea that llGRBs are relativistic shock breakouts. A rectangle, a circle, and a triangle are drawn on a plane. Since then a few other GRB–SN associations have been discovered. Consider again equation (3.1). The idea of abbreviating a story has been around for centuries. A schematic picture of a relativistic jet propagating within a stellar envelope is depicted in figure 1. They find that the total energy, spectral peak and duration of all llGRBs can be well explained by relativistic shock breakouts. In fact, this rate is so large that llGRBs cannot be significantly beamed, as, even with modest beaming corrections, the rate would exceed the rates of their associated SNe—broad line type Ibc. Srinivasan, Mahesh; Carey, Susan. From Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English the long and (the) short of it the long and (the) short of it spoken RESULT used when you are telling someone the most important facts about something rather than all the details The long and the short of it is that we missed the train. Mathematical long division is from 1808. A preliminary inspection of such studies reveals that, while in some cases the short sample has only a small number of potential collapsars, in other cases the short sample used was heavily contaminated by high-probability potential collapsars (with observed duration shorter than 2 s), and it is possible and even likely that these have dominated the results. being or indicating a relatively great or greater than average duration or passage of time or a duration as specified, of relatively great or greater than average spatial extension or extension as specified, "a race of long gaunt men"- Sherwood Anderson, holding securities or commodities in expectation of a rise in prices, (of speech sounds or syllables) of relatively long duration, having or being more than normal or necessary, for an extended time or at a distant time. GRB 051109B shows all the common features of llGRBs, but it lacks a reported SN. long (adj.) (a) BATSE, (b) Swift and (c) Fermi GBM fractions, fNC (solid red line), of non-collapsars from the total number of observed GRBs as a function of the observed duration, T90.

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