Hutton also makes no reference to the cases of ergotism in the 16th to 19th centuries, this poisoning by the fungus on rye and barley called ergot, which when baked in bread changes into a chemical similar to LSD that causes visions and convulsions often interpreted as demonic possession. This species played the largest role when it came to hallucinogens throughout and before the Middle Ages.

Entheogens, Ethnobotanicals, Hallucinogens & Psychoactives, Location: Africa, Europe, Asia, and Abundant in the Himalayas.

Hallucinogenic cactus, plants and mushrooms were used to induce altered states of consciousness in healing rituals and religious ceremonies.

Blázquez Miguel, Eros y Tánatos, 23-24.

Thank you for the references.

To accept Hutton one has to excise the whole European herbal tradition, for herbalists have to learn about magic mushrooms and Solanaceae to avoid poisoning themselves and others.

Of the 120 or more such plants found to date, over 100 are native to the Americas; the Old World has contributed a mere 15-20 species. Other unguents have been found to contain aconite or monkshood, cinquefoil and belladonna. 125-150. We are, most of us, descendants of the elves and witches. interest.

Olmec, Zapotec, Maya and Aztec …

Genetic sampling shows that 75-95 per cent of the pre-1950 population came from neolithic Iberians who walked here after the last glaciation receded and we were joined to the continent. Probably the most famous New World hallucinogenic plant is peyote, a small, spineless, globose gray-green cactus native to the Rio Grande valley of Texas and northern Mexico. Examination of witch trials suggested there had been no witchcraft: it was a ‘social construct’ of the Christian patriarchy persecuting innocent women, as it had innocent Jews indicted for the same satanic practices. When you see a photo of a drunken, tattooed yob vomiting in the gutters of San Antonio, watched by a spaced-out chick in a weird hat capering about with a spliff in one hand and bottle of sangria in the other, it’s not decadence, merely modern British elf and witch doing their midsummer solstice thing.

This kind of explanation is what MIT students offer for the Jewish dietary laws b. Are they seriously delusional? The roots of witchcraft A study of the effects of hallucinogenic plants can explain much about sorcery and demonic possession through the ages

Mandrake has one of the deepest, richest histories with providing medicinal value, recreational value and magical value throughout history. the elves. Normally it has a thick root which splits many different ways to provide stability in the ground. Mandrake emits a really sweet and attractive scent from its yellow berry. It is unknown when peyote was first used, but 16 th century reports by European explorers describe its use by Aztecs as a divinatory plant… a. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs Volume 30 (4), October - December 1998. Professor Hutton is a follower of Cohn.

Moreover, it is no secret that some “notorious” substances played a hallucinogenic and psychotropic role too. When the fantastically potent mind-altering qualities of LSD were first discovered, at the height of World War II in a Swiss pharmaceutical !ab, they were characterized as …

Then came revisionists led by Norman Cohn. Harner, «The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft», Hallucinogens and Shamanism (London, 1973), 124-150.

Until the mid-1960s many historians believed witchcraft was a pre-Christian pagan fertility ritual, witches worshipping the Horned God, whose consort was the Triple Goddess. 26.

This combination is said to produce cardiac arrhythmia, which in a sleeping person would give the sensation of falling or flying. Hutton mentions that in folklore witches danced with elves, but not that until Shakespeare’s day elves were full-sized men who married ordinary mortals.

that the use of certain plants for their medicinal/psychedelic applications Couliano also mentions M. Harner "The Role of Hallucinogenic Plants in European Witchcraft" in M. Harner (ed.) Ritual enemas and other psychoactive substances were also used to induce states of trance.

The redcap Fly Agaric mushroom, which appears in many pictures showing witches, was one such psychedelic, as was psilocybin. Powered by WordPress, Full Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon, Hallucinogen and Psychoactive Plant Lexicon, Hallucinogenic and Psychoactive Plant Basics, Safest Legal Alternatives to Marijuana in 2020.


Many herbalists were women living in rural areas where herbs were found and collected.

Some scholars blame ergot poisoning of both victims and perpetrators for the Salem ‘possessions’.

It is really not very surprising to me Stephen Oppenheimer in The Origins of the British shows evidence that there was no genocide of ancient Britons by either Celtic or Anglo-Saxon incomers. would be found across disciplines.

There is in the worldwide distribution of the hallucinogenic plants a pronounced and significant discrepancy that has only inadequately been accounted for but which serves to illustrate a critical feature of their role in traditional societies. The Salem witch trials occurred in a wet, cold summer favourable to the ergot fungus: the next, hot and dry, produced no reports of demonic possession.

The leaves are messy, crinkly and oval in shape.

Two of many studies on witches’ drug-taking are The Witches’ Ointment by Thomas Hatsis and Essential Substances by Richard Rudgley: neither are in Hutton’s bibliography, which contains no reference works at all on the subject. other aspects seen in the VMS. Hallucinogenic Drugs and Plants in Psychotherapy and Shamanism. They had kings and queens, lived ‘under hills’ (in turf-covered earthen Neolithic barrows), had great knowledge of potions and drugs, ‘danced by moonlight’ with witches, shot ‘elf-bolts’ (flint arrow heads) that killed at a scratch as they were ‘dipped in the dew of hemlock’.

Mandrake technically comes in six different species, but the most relevant was M. officinarum. His study, by ideological necessity, makes no reference to the historical and modern evidence that European witches used hallucinogenic drugs which produced psychedelic sensations of flying, time-space displacement, transformation into beasts, and close encounters, often sexual, with man-beast therianthropes such as the god Pan. Charles Lea "Materials towards a History of Witchcraft" (New York and London, 1957).

Mandrake has not been rivaled by any other plant or herb in terms of history of use and value in culture throughout European folklore. a. have mentioned may help fill some of the gaps in identifying the plants and

This species played the largest role when it came to hallucinogens throughout and before the Middle Ages.

Syrian Rue – Soma, Hallucinogen and Ancient Herb, Botanical Shaman 2020 . An ... —The role of hallucinogenic plants in European witchcraft.“ In M. J. Harner, ed., Hallucinogens and Shamanism Oxford: 125-150 Cross-cultural Perspectives III 1 .

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