Also known as cooch dancing, belly dance found its way into silent film, variety, burlesque, circus, seaside sideshows, and eventually Hollywood. However, most Americans referring to this ancient art form simply call it "belly dance" and take lessons. Most steps are performed with slightly turned out toes. Most competitive stepdances are solo dances, though many stepdancers also perform and compete in traditional set and group figure dances called céilí which are most commonly danced socially at festivals, but competitive céilís are more precise. While there are several categories of dance competition, contemporary dance is most often seen in “open competitions.” “Open competitions” require contestants to perform dances, usually rehearsed and developed in a compressed amount of time, and often in a variety of styles—acro(batics) ballet, jazz, hip hop, lyrical, and tap—in front of judges for awards ranging from trophies to monetary sums and professional or educational opportunities. These dances often resemble the ballroom versions only in the most basic sense. Danced by men and women in some Middle Eastern countries and the United States, most commonly at festive occasions such as weddings. Music in a dance can consist of a single tune or a medley of tunes. In training performers learn specific ways of moving, and the stylized walk that allow them to portray a particular genre of character. The Yaqui Indian Matachines Society is a group in northern Mexico and southern Arizona whose members continue to observe a sacred vow to dance their devotions for the Virgin Mary with medieval European folk dances taught to them after 1617 by Jesuit padres. It is believed that belly dance first came to America in 1893 when a dancer known as "Little Egypt" performed at the Chicago World's Fair. In the 1950s, dancer/choreographer Jose Greco, born in Italy to Spanish parents, raised in Brooklyn, pioneered a long-form style of flamenco choreography using a full company to tell dramatic stories, much like ballet. John Playford and the preservation of dance, Johann Gottfried von Herder and the idea of the folk, Cecil Sharp and the promotion of folk dance, Ljubica Janković and Danica Janković and modern scholarship, https://www.britannica.com/art/folk-dance, folk dance - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Other names include Arabic dance or “Oriental” dancing after the Orientalist paintings that depicted romanticized images of harem life in the Ottoman Empire. Performers are trained from early childhood through an apprenticeship that can last a lifetime. Similarly, in 1980 the International Folk Music Council, a nonprofit organization supported by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization), changed its name to International Council for Traditional Music. Hip Hop—is an umbrella term for 4 cultural phenomena that were developed in the 1970s primarily by black and Latino young people in the Bronx and Brooklyn, and later in California. The matachines dances are a good example of how fluid the definitions of folk dance and folk dancers are. Fascinated by the dance and the music, Americans became very interested in the exotic dances and rhythms of the orient. The theory and practice of all classical Indian arts can be traced back to the Sanskrit text the Natya Shastra. South African ballet choreographer, Dada Masilo, and modern dance teacher and choreographer Germaine Acogny of Senegal, known as the mother of modern dance in Africa are two. These Americanized theatrical versions in turn influenced dancers in the Middle East shaping the dance performance as we know it today. Competition dance is a relatively recent development most familiar from television reality shows such as “So You Think You Can Dance” and others like it. It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. She writes about dance styles and practices and the history of dance. The body is used asymmetrically. But what is the symbolism of the gestures, footwork and costumes drawn from classical Indian dance styles? In a single dance, a caller may include anywhere from 6–12 figures repeated through out the dance. African dances are performed in lines or circles of dancers. Swing Dance—is a recent umbrella term describing the partner-dances that developed to jazz swing music beginning in the 1920s and reaching a peak in the 1930s and ‘40s. The dance focuses on weaving isolations through different parts of the body, together they make sensuous patterns that move throughout the body. The actual steps for each dance are unique to the dance school. Although their heritage is from the traditions and cultures of Latin American (Samba, Cha-Cha-Cha, Rumba), Hispanic (Paso Doble is said to be a representation of a bull fight,) and the U.S. (Jive), all the dances share an exaggerated expressiveness and intensity and energy, although each has distinct traits and practices. Some persons who perform what outsiders define as folk dances do not themselves identify their dances as folk dances. Usually, the designation folk was used by those who did not consider themselves to belong to the folk and were confident that they knew which other people were the folk. Feet are flattened against the ground in a wide stance. African dance most often refers to traditional social dance, and to ceremonial or religious dance—danced communal religious observances led either by priests or girots who perform ritual dance-dramas that share cultural traditions or community history through metaphorical statements expressed in music and dance. The word “ballet” and the word “ball”—a dance party—are derived from the Italian “ballare” meaning “to dance.” Ballet has a specific, recognizable movement vocabulary that developed primarily in France initially from 17th century social dance movement. By the same reasoning, folk dancers are those persons who perform folk dances. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. *Kourlas, Gia, 2010, “Time to Put Choreography Back on Its Feet” New York Times, September 2. A young George Balanchine began developing his ideas of neo-classical ballet while working for the Ballet Russe in the 1920s His partnership with composer Igor Stravinsky began here. This article examines possible ways to look at and define folk dance, how various groups might conceive of their dances, and how the study of folk dance was born and developed. Its study section on dance broadened in scope from folk dance to ethnochoreology, the study of all dance forms in a culture. Traditionally the dance was performed by men, even the female roles, although now it is predominantly performed by women. Bollywood dance moves are now a familiar sight on Western TV and cinema screens. It is often specifically used to replace “modern” or “post-modern” in discussions of “avant-garde, process-based concert dance…that evolved” from the earlier forms. (Some scholars believe that the footwork may have origins in Indian dance technique.) Irish Stepdance—is a dance performance derived from the traditions of Irish dance. Belly Dance—has roots in India. Now an annual, Memorial Day weekend celebration, DanceAfrica includes performance by some of the countries top African dance companies, visiting guest companies from Africa, education events, and an African Bazaar. Because these dances are kindred only in the context of Western ballroom dance, they should in no way be considered related. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? It emerged in the early twentieth century in vaudeville and burlesque and is based in African American social dance. Reels (4/4 time), light and single jigs (6/8 time,) and slip jigs (9/8 time) are considered to be the lightest and most graceful of the dances. The simplest approach to definition might be to say that folk dances are those dances identified with and performed by folk dancers. “Jive” is the name given to the style performed in ballroom competition. It would do an injustice to all of their work to try and summarize it. Costumes can be very expensive but are considered important for stage presence. Belly dancing offers an instant community of friends for women of all ages who find joy in music and movement. The term folk dance was accepted until the mid-20th century. Flamenco footwork is often compared to tap and Irish step dance, but flamenco technique is different. Arms must be kept still and hanging by the dancer’s side. Ailey Dance has performed in 48 states, 71 countries, and on 6 continents. During stage performances the fourth wall often comes down, communication extending between dancer, drummers, and audience members. Current tap styles include: rhythm, aka jazz tap, which focuses on musicality. Several, 20th century Black American choreographers established the groundwork for choreographers whose work references African, African-American, and Afro-Caribbean traditions. It is also essential to note that people in many non-Western cultures do not themselves describe any activity as dance in the way that English speakers do. Castanets—wooden disks that fit between the thumb and forefinger of the dancer and can be rhythmically patted together—are closely associated flamenco. Probably the greatest misconception about belly dancing is that it is intended to entertain men. It should also imply who the performers are. A dance that is mostly associated with Zulu culture. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. The term "belly dance" is believed to have come from a French term (danse du ventre) meaning "dance of the stomach." For example, in the 1960s the Folk Music Archives at Indiana University was renamed Archives of Traditional Music. Danced flamenco is known for emotional intensity, proud carriage, expressive use of the arms, and rhythmic stamping of the feet. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. Female dancers in particular often curl their hair into ringlets before each competition and many dancers invest in curled wigs that match their hair color. Satin, square-toed slippers called point shoes help female dancers rise to the tips of their toes, a hallmark of ballet. These Yaqui do not think of their dances as folk dances, nor do they think of themselves as folk dancers, although persons from the outside readily make those assignments. Dancers form couples and join long lines down the length of the dance hall. See also dance, for a general treatment of dance as an art form. Young people are not thought to have the emotional maturity to convey the duende (soul) of flamenco. Some think it may be one of the oldest styles of dance in the world. Many cultural groups around the world demanded that their performing arts not be characterized by the term. Informal gypsy flamenco, danced during celebrations in Spain, is considered the most "authentic," if less technically virtuosic. The earliest descriptions of tap dance dates to the mid-1800s, but the form is likely older. A number of periods of dance performance led to modern ballet: The most famous members of the Ballet Russe were brother and sister Vaslav Nijinsky, the choreographer of Rite of Spring, (music by then unknown Igor Stravinsky) and Bronislava Ninjinksa, the company ballet master. Some think it may be one of the oldest styles of dance in the world. And some persons who perform such dances do not identity themselves as folk dancers. This attitude was part of a larger worldview that sometimes went so far as to place certain other groups of people farther down the human evolutionary tree from themselves and their peers. For the purposes of this article, the designation folk dance will be used for convenience, without the extended discussion of terms that a more scholarly treatment would require. Traditional Maypole dance from England, with circle formation of dancers interweaving; detail from a 19th-century drawing. These are white socks that stretch to mid calf with distinctive ribbing. (Washington, D.C.), and Forces of Nature Dance Theatre Company (New York), to name only a few.
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